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  1. S. Cotofana, D. Freytag et. al. The Bidirectional Movement of the Frontalis Muscle: Introducing the Line of Convergence and it’s Potential Clinical Relevance. PRS 2020, May

  2. J. Jankovic, J. Carruthers et. al. Neutralizing Antibody Conversion with OnabotulinumtoxinA From Global Studies Across Multiple Indications in Nearly 30,000 Patient Records: A Meta-analysis 2021, January

  3. O. Ozgur, D Murariu et. al., Dry Eye Syndrome Due to Botulinum Toxin Type-A Injection: Guideline for Prevention. Hawaii Journal of Medicine and Public Health. 2012, May

  4. E. Sorensen, C. Urman. Cosmetic Complications: Rare and Serious Events Following Botulinum Toxin and Soft Tissue Filler Administration. JDD, 2015, May

  5. K.P. Bhakti, A. Munchau et. al., Generalised Muscular Weakness after Botulinum Toxin Injections for Dysonia: a report of 3 cases. J Neurol Neurogurg Psychiatry, 1999, 67

  6. L. Bai, X. Peng et. al., Clinical Analysis of 86 Botulism Cases caused by Cosmetic Injection of Botulinum Toxin (BoNT), MD-Journal, 2018, 97

  7. I.J. Moon, S. E. Chang, First Case of Anaphylaxis after Botulinum Toxin Type A Injection, Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 2017, 42

  8. L. Rosenfield, D. Kardassakis, The First Case Report of a Systemic Allergy to OnabotulinumA (Botox) in a Healthy Patient, Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 2014, vol.34

  9. S. Dayan, Complications from Toxins and Fillers in the Dermatology Clinic-Recognition, Prevention and Treatment, Facial Plastic Surgery Clinic N Am, 2013, 663-673

  10. T. Cote’, A. Mohan et. al., Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections: Adverse Events Reported to the US Food and Drug Administration in Therapeutic and Cosmetic Cases, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2005, Sept.

  11. E. Yiannakopoulou, Serious and Long-Term Adverse Events Associated with the Therapuetic and Cosmetic Use of Botulinum Toxin, Pharmacology, 2015, 95

CMAC 2022

Neuromodulator Complications Talk

Nicola Lowrey, MPAP, PA-C

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